Whenever one thinks about Kashmir two things come in mind one is the beauty of the valley another is the dreaded face of terrorism. In fact, Kashmir becomes the icon of terrorism in India. Today we are going to summarize you on every aspect of terrorism in Kashmir. So let’s start.
| TABLE OF CONTENTS |
History of Kashmir Reasons for the insurgency.
Major terror attacks in Kashmir.
Ways of funding Steps taken by Government
History of Kashmir
Before starting our discussion on terrorism in Kashmir, it is very important to know about the history of Kashmir. This brief history will help you in understanding the root cause of this terrorism. India got its independence on 15th August 1947, but at that time the geographical map of India was altogether different from the current one, also at the time of independence India was divided into two types of territories, one was British India (the areas which were directly under the control of British before independence) the other one was Princely states which were not under the direct control of British, but they were subservient to British. But as you all know independence came with the grief of partition. India was parted into India and Pakistan and there were 552 princely states who were given the right of joining either of the dominions or to remain independent. The contemporary home minister of interim government Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel did this task well and almost all princely states were merged with India, but 3 princely states caused much difficulty i.e, Hyderabad, Junagarh, Kashmir. Hyderabad was taken by Police action, Junagarh was taken by referendum, but Kashmir intended to remain free. At that time Kashmir was a Muslim majority state ruled by a Hindu ruler Raja Hari Singh. Meanwhile, Pakistan attacked Kashmir and annexed many parts of it, so Hari Singh asked military help of India but Inda refused on the grounds that Kashmir is not part of India, then Raja Hari Singh Signed INSTRUMENT OF ACCESSION with Government of India and agreed to accede to the Dominion of India. Then governor-general Mountbatten sent a letter to Hari Singh in which it was written: “it is my Government’s wish that as soon as law and order have been restored in Jammu and Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invader the question of the State’s accession should be settled by a reference to the people.” Also, India took the matter to the UN regarding the legality of Instrument but there also India did not get any success. UN-mandated to maintain the status quo with the present boundary and hold a plebiscite after removal of forces, but both countries never removed their forces and it became de facto border which is also known as LOC( Line of Control) and Kashmir became the bone of contention between both nations.
It is an undeniable fact that Kashmir was a Muslim majority state and many people wanted to remain free and some wanted to go with Pakistan, also many were there who wanted to remain with India but somewhere there was an anti-India sentiment among people, that spark was fuelled by Pakistan. The Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence has encouraged and aided the Kashmir independence movement through an insurgency due to its dispute on the legitimacy of Indian rule in Kashmir, with the insurgency it was easy to keep Indian troops distracted and cause international defamation to India. This terror support by Pakistan has been recognized by many countries.
Also, local leaders wanted to shine their politics in the valley. After the rise of Islamisation in the Kashmir valley, during the 1987 state elections, various Islamic groups including Jamaat-e-Islami Kashmir were organized under a single banner named Muslim United Front (MUF), that is largely current Hurriyat. This election was won by Sheik Abdulla who joined hands with Congress. Hurriyat blamed that elections were rigged and promote unrest in the valley. After this election valley saw so much bloodshed and attacks.
Also, many sources say the long presence of forces in the state developed an anti-national and separatist feeling among many people in Kashmir, lack of jobs is also a major factor in this because terror outfits and Pakistan use to incentivize youth of Kashmir for such activities.
Major terror attacks in Kashmir
According to THE Hindu here is the list of some attacks
3 November 1999 Terrorists storm the Badamibagh Army headquarters, killing 10 soldiers including Defence Public Relations Officer Major Purshottam.
19 April 2000 The “human bomb” was used for the first time in Kashmir insurgency. Two soldiers were killed in the suicide car bomb at the Army headquarters at Badamibagh area in Srinagar.
1 October 2001 Terrorists trigger a car bomb outside the old Legislative Assembly Complex in Srinagar. 38 persons were killed while three assailants were also eliminated.
14 May 2002 In one of the biggest strikes on an Army installation, 36 persons were killed by three terrorists who stormed the Kaluchak Army Cantonment in Jammu. The assailants were also killed.
2 November 2005 A suicide bomber blew up his car at Nowgam, near the private residence of then Chief Minister Mufti Mohammad Sayeed, killing three cops and six civilians.
19 July 2008 Ten soldiers were killed when terrorists triggered an IED planted by the roadside at Narbal on Srinagar-Baramulla highway on the outskirts of the city.
5 December 2014 Six heavily-armed terrorists stormed an Army camp at Mohra in Uri. Ten soldiers were killed in the gun battle with the intruders, who were all shot dead.
18 September 2016 Four Pakistani terrorists storm an Army camp at Uri in Baramulla district, killing 18 soldiers, most of them were in sleep. The assailants were also killed. The incident led to reprisal surgical strikes inside Pakistan occupied Kashmir by the Indian Army.
The Pulwama attack happened on February 14, 2019, when a Jaish suicide bomber rammed a vehicle carrying over 100 kg of explosives into their bus in Pulwama district. It killed 39 CRPF Personnel.
Overall we can understand that the valley faced much of bloodshed since its merger. Many civilians and soldiers lost their lives in this unrest. Also from time to time, our soldiers face stone pelting in Kashmir.
Ways of funding
These terrorist groups are funded in many ways:
- By the means of ‘Havala’.
- These groups earn money from Black marketing of drugs, oil, and other banned things.
- They receive funding in the form of gifts from their supporters.
- Also, they use international ATM transactions to avoid coming under the lens.
- They also use ransom wares, to extort money.
- They use cryptocurrency for their transactions.
Also, they use many other methods but above are very common among terror groups worldwide.
Steps were taken by Government
The government took many steps from time to time since the accession of Kashmir into India. Right from the very beginning, Kashmir was given very autonomy in the form of article 35-A, such autonomy was never given to any other state. Such autonomy was given to Kashmiris to fulfill their aspirations and to respect the terms of INSTRUMENT OF ACCESSION.
Also, the Government took many times initiative to open the door of bilateral ties with Pakistan, but Pakistan never respects the ceasefire on LOC and continued its terror promoting activities. With the much effort of Indian diplomacy we drag Pakistan on the issue of terrorism to many international platforms, which as a result put Pakistan in the Grey List of FATF, this builds pressure on Pakistani to stop its terror funding.
Demonetization was also intended to stop the inflow of counterfeit currency form Pakistan.
Recently, a major step was taken by the government by the abrogation of Article 370 and 35-A, for the sake of inclusion of Kashmir to the mainstream. Also, the Government took the status of state from Jammu and Kashmir and declared it as Union Territory for better administration and curbing terror activities.
In a nutshell, we can say that Kashmiris are not the terrorist they are used as a shield by real non-state actors and politicians for their cause. The need for the hour is the development and economic growth of the valley and the creation of lucrative jobs for Kashmiris. Only such inclusion can fulfill the dream of united India.
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