This is the first time in the history of the United Nations that its General Assembly meeting is being addressed through the virtual medium. The reason behind this is well known, i.e., COVID-19. This is the 75th session of the United Nations General Assembly, which means the 75th Anniversary of UN.
UN was established on 24th October 1945 with the signing of the United Nations Charter by 50 countries. Since then, the world has been working continuously for the welfare and peace. Its objectives are to cooperate in facilitating international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights and world peace.
Formed after Second World War
The United Nations was conceived in the wake of the great disaster in the Second World War. The only motive behind its formation was that the world would not have to face such danger again and that various issues could be resolved through dialogue and mediation. The Second World War was started in 1939 and its end was announced in 1945. The catastrophic war was ended after two atomic bombs dropped on Japan and the resulting disaster.
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There was hardly anyone in this war who lived without being affected by it. Millions of people lost their lives in this 6 years-long war. No country had the courage to see this frightful scene again. Therefore, it was thought of the formation of an institution which could save the world from this destruction.
The successor of League of Nations
The need for an organization like the UN was felt after the First World war. At that time the League of Nations was formed in 1920 but it was completely ineffective. Later the United Nations was formed in its place.
The biggest difference between the two was that under adverse circumstances the United Nations could deploy the Peace Keeping Forces of its member countries to maintain peace. However, this army consists of soldiers from different countries and serves as the peacekeeping force of the United Nations.
Currently, India is the largest contributor( in terms of soldiers) in this peacekeeping force. This peacekeeping force works for the interests of common citizens in the countries of the world where there is a conflict between different groups. Under this, they are also provided with health services and essential items.
Major organs of the United Nations
It is the only part of the United Nations, in which all the member states of the Union have a membership and have been given the honour suffrage, hence it is also called the Small Parliament of the world. Its session is called at least once a year, which is usually in New York in the month of September.
The Security Council is the mandating body fulfilling the responsibility of the United Nations related to world peace and security. It has 5 permanent members. USA, UK, China, France and Russia. Apart from permanent members, there are 10 temporary members of the Security Council, who are elected by the General Assembly for 2 years. Each Permanent member of the Security Council receives a veto.
It is the administrative part of the United Nations. The Secretariat consists of a General Secretary and other employees. The Secretary-General is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for 5 years. Currently, the UN Secretary-General is Antonio Guterres.
Economic and Social Council
There are 54 members in this council. The term of these members is 3 years. It is a permanent institution and one-third of its members are elected for overlapping 3 years. It studies various problems related to economic, social, education and health, prepares reports on them and has sent suggestions related to them to the General Assembly and other related institutions.
The international court of Justice
This court consists of 15 members, who are elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council. The International Court of Justice was established on 3 April 1940. The official language of the court in English. It is headquartered in The Hague (Netherlands). The tenure of judges is 9 years and their re-election is not barred.
This council is given with the responsibilities related to the administration and security of those nations, which were not able to become independent even after the Second World War. 11 states were placed in it, in which British Toboland, Cameroon, Borderland, West Samo etc. Have attained independence.
Headquarters and Language
The United Nations headquarters are in New York, USA. The establishment of this building was managed by a group of international artisans. Apart from this headquarters, other important institutions are in Geneva and Copenhagen and many other countries. Talking about the accepted languages of the United Nations, it has a total of six languages which include Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. But of these, only English and French are considered the languages of operation. When it was founded, only Chinese, English, French and Russian languages were accepted. In 1973, Arabic and Spanish were also included. Opponents of the United Nations have been raising their voices many times about these languages. India believes that Hindi should also be made the official language of the United Nations, as Hindi speakers consist second largest population in the world.